Michael Kölling

Vice Dean (Education), Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences
Professor of Computer Science, Department for Informatics

King's College London
Strand, London, WC2R 2LS, UK

Recent publications

Blue, BlueJ, Greenfoot: Designing Educational Programming Environments
Michael Kölling. Book chapter, in Innovative Methods, User-Friendly Tools, Coding, and Design Approaches in People-Oriented Programming, 2018.

Blackbox, Five Years On: An Evaluation of a Large-scale Programming Data Collection Project
Neil C.C. Brown, Amjad Altadmri, Sue Sentance, Michael Kölling. ICER 2018. ACM, 2018.

Frame-Based Editing
Kölling, M., Brown, N. C. C. & Altadmri, A. Journal of Visual Languages and Sentient System (3), 2017.

Evaluation of a Frame-based Programming Editor
Price, T. W., Brown, N. C. C., Lipovac, D., Barnes, T. & Kölling, M. ICER 2016. ACM, 2016.

Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems
Kölling, M. Transactions of Computing Education, 16 (3), 2016.

Educational Programming on the Raspberry Pi
Kölling, M. Electronics, 5 (3), 2016.

Lessons from the Design of Three Educational Programming Environments: Blue, BlueJ and Greenfoot
Kölling, M. International Journal of People-Oriented Programming, 4 (1), 2016.

(Other publications are in the King's repository, the University of Kent repository and Google Scholar.)

BlueJ book cover

David J. Barnes & Michael Kölling

Objects First with Java
A Practical Introduction using BlueJ

Sixth edition, Pearson Education, 2016

ISBN: 978-013-447736-7 (US) / 978-1-292-15904-1 (Int'l)

Book website

Reflections book cover

Jens BennedsenMichael E. CaspersenMichael Kölling

Reflections on the Teaching of Programming:
Methods and Implementations

(Lecture Notes in Computer Science)

Springer; 2008
ISBN: 978-3-540-77933-9

Book website

Grenfoot book cover

Michael Kölling

Introduction to Programming with Greenfoot
Object-Oriented Programming in Java with Games and Simulations 

Second edition, Pearson, 2016

ISBN: 978-013-405429-2

Book website

Research interests
  • Programming languages, software tools, HCI, programming education, object-orientation


BlueJ logo


An educational programming environment aimed at introductory university or late school level learners.


Greenfoot logo


A graphical, interactive novice programming environment aimed at school level learners (age 14 upwards).


Blackbox logo


A data collection project collecting large scale novice programmer user data to support programming education research.


Stride logo

Stride / Frame-based editing

A new language and program manipulation paradigm to support ealy learners transitioning from block-based to text-based programming.



The project team: Neil Brown / Davin McCall / Amjad Altadmri / Hamza Hamza

PhD opportunities

I am currently looking for new PhD students. If you are interested in a PhD in the area of software tools and/or programming educaion, please email me. It helps if you have done some research and preparation before mailing. It also helps if you have some (possibly vague) idea what kinds of things you are interested in.